The advent of the Portuguese – The first Europeans to land in India who managed to carve out enclaves of power – showed up the chaotic situation in this vast land. The mighty Mughals were yet to build their empire but they never quite gained mastery over the seas; on the other land, the colonial empires were built on the strength of the naval power of their home countries.
1. Revamped introductory chapter with latest national income estimates
2. Substantially revised chapters on Inflation, Agriculture, Industry, Infrastructure and Services with new issues added
3. Economic Impact of COVID-19 and the measures of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan have been included in relevant chapters for better understanding
4. Revised and updated chapters on Development Economics, Economic Reforms, Human Development in India along with incorporation of latest Human Development Report 2019
5. Student-friendly features like Glossary of relevant terms and Multiple-Choice Questions together with Model Answers have been updated and revised based on the relevant burning issues and the latest changes